Introduced in the late 1800s, distance learning has been conducted in many different forms from correspondence, parcel post, television programs to online learning via the Internet. This old concept returned as the mainstream in the current time due to the appalling effects of the COVID-19 pandemic which suddenly shifted teachers and students away from their normal classroom. As the use of online learning via the Internet – the main form of distance learning is predicted to continue to persist post-pandemic, there are many arising concerns relating to the adoption of this learning method in the global education market. According to our research and observation, there are four main elements taking interaction in distance-learning courses: students, teachers, systems (school and government). Through interaction between these factors, many problems are identified: low effectiveness of online teaching and learning due to low interactivity and low quality of instructions, difficulty in accessing educational resources for lower-income groups, and special needs students and system issues that occur both at school and country level. Using the built model and discovered problems as a basis, we proposed both short-term and long-term solutions that act as a holistic approach for different levels of education and stakeholders. All in all, we believe that “One-size-fit-all is not a good idea for education”. Thus, we suggest every individual and institution consider the suitable education scheme based on available resources, infrastructure status, and impact level for different educational parties.

Team Leader

Jasmine Humaira

University of Indonesia


Wei Huang

National University of Singapore


Thi Thanh Nhan Bui

National Sun Yat-Sen University